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If a child was adopted in the UK after 1 January 1983 and a parent was a British citizen at the time of the adoption, then that child is a British citizen.
Adoption outside of the UK
If a child was adopted outside the UK, then one needs to look at the natural (or biological) parents to determine whether the adopted child has a claim to British nationality. The nationality of the adopting parents will normally have no bearing on the nationality of the child, though again there are some exceptions.
If either adoptive parent had a UK-born parent, then the UK Ancestry visa is available to the adopted child (as long as they meet the other criteria of this visa class).
Children under 18
For as long as the adopted child is still under the age of 18, then that adopted child will be eligible for the same UK visas that a natural child will have rights to. Also, it is possible to apply for a discretionary registration for British nationality if it can be shown that it is in the child’s best interest to do so.