Austria

Austrian citizenship by birth

There are a number of factors which influence if you can claim citizenship by descent from an Austrian parent.

Citizenship through your mother

If your mother is an Austrian citizen, you automatically become an Austrian citizen at the time of your birth.

Citizenship through your father

If your parents are married with only your father being an Austrian citizen, you also automatically become a citizen.

Citizenship through both parents (unmarried)

If you’re born to two Austrian parents, you automatically become a citizen. It doesn’t matter whether your parents were married or not at the time of your birth.

Citizenship through a parent (married)

If you were born after 1 September 1983 and your parents were married at the time of your birth, you can claim citizenship through either your mother or father, provided one of them was an Austrian citizen when you were born.

If you were born prior to 1 September 1983, your father must have been an Austrian citizen at the time of your birth.

Austrian citizenship through grandparents

It is not possible for you to claim Austrian citizenship by descent through your grandparents.

Austrian citizenship by marriage

You can get Austrian residency through marriage to an Austrian citizen, but you must have lived in Austria with a settlement permit for a minimum of six years. Your marriage must also have been in effect for a minimum of five years.

Austrian nationality law allows for applying for Austrian citizenship by naturalisation after living in Austria for a continuous period of 10 years. There are certain cases that allow you to apply earlier.

Austria dual citizenship

Austria does not allow dual citizenship except in the case of acquiring two citizenships at the time you were born.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Bulgaria

You can receive Bulgarian citizenship by descent, birth or naturalisation.

Bulgaria citizenship by descent

You can claim Bulgarian citizenship by descent if one of your parents is a Bulgarian citizen.

Bulgaria citizenship by birth

You can claim Bulgarian citizenship by birth if you were born in Bulgaria, as long as you did not get citizenship of another country at birth by descent. If a child is found in Bulgaria with unknown parents, they also receive Bulgarian citizenship.

Bulgaria citizenship by naturalisation

You can receive Bulgarian citizenship by residency in Bulgaria provided you are 18 years or older and have held long-term or permanent residency in the country for at least five years. The residency requirement is reduced to three years if you were born in Bulgaria or settled in the country before 18.

You also need to satisfy some other requirements, including having sufficient income to support yourself, not being convicted of a crime and speaking Bulgarian.

Bulgarian citizenship by marriage

If you’re married to a Bulgarian citizen, you can receive citizenship through naturalisation after living for three years in Bulgaria.

Bulgaria dual citizenship

Bulgaria permits dual citizenship.

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Belgium

Belgian citizenship by birth

The Belgian citizenship requirements can get fairly complicated and depend on the date you were born as well as the circumstances of your parents at the time of your birth.

Born before 1 January 1967

You receive Belgian citizenship by descent:

  • If you were born to a Belgian citizen father if he was married to your mother at the time of your birth.
  • You were born to unmarried parents, from your mother before age of majority (21 years). After acknowledgement from your father before age of majority you will retain citizenship.

Born between 1 January 1967 and 31 December 1984

You receive Belgian citizenship if:

  • You were born in Belgium to a Belgian citizen.
  • You were born outside Belgium to a Belgian citizen father who was married to your mother at the time of your birth.
  • You were born outside Belgium to a Belgian citizen mother (who was born in Belgium or Belgian Congo before 30 June 1960 or who was born in Rwanda or Burundi before 1 July 1962).

Born on or after 1 January 1985

You receive Belgian citizenship if:

  • You were born in Belgium to a Belgian citizen.
  • One of your parents was born outside of Belgium and one of the following applies:
    • Your Belgian parent was born in Belgium or Belgian Congo before 30 June 1960 or was born in Rwanda or Burundi before 1 July 1962.
    • Your Belgian parent was born outside of Belgium but makes a declaration no more than five years after you were born to request Belgian citizenship for you*.

    *The rules surrounding the declaration need to be carefully followed. It’s best to speak to an expert immigration consultant to check your specific circumstances.

Retaining Belgian citizenship

If you are a Belgian citizen that was born outside Belgium on or after 1 January 1967, it is possible to lose your citizenship, provided you meet the following criteria:

  • When you turn 28 years old if between the ages of 18 and 28, your main country of residence was not Belgium.
  • You hold other nationalities.
  • You have not made a declaration stating your intention to retain Belgian citizenship between age 18 and 28.

If you fall into this group, you must ensure that you make a declaration of your intention to retain your Belgian nationality before you turn 28.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Cyprus

Cypriot citizenship

You can apply for Cypriot citizenship if you are over 18 years old on the basis of having Cypriot origins. These cases usually involve one of the following situations:

  • You were born abroad after 16 August 1960 and have a Cypriot parent
  • You were work after 11 June 1999 and your mother was a Cypriot at the time of your birth

Cypriot citizenship by marriage

Gaining citizenship through marriage requires marriage to a Cypriot for three years and living in the country for two years prior to the date of application. After this, you can receive Cyprus citizenship by naturalisation.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Czech Republic

Czech citizenship by descent

Czech citizenship can be passed down from Czech citizen parents, or grandparents, provided both grandparents are Czech citizens. The Czech Republic does not take into account whether you are born in the country or not.

If only your father is Czech and your parents are unmarried, your parents will need to make a declaration proving paternity. This can also be in the form of a DNA test or court determination.

Czech citizenship by marriage

If you are the spouse of a Czech citizen, you can apply for Czech Republic citizenship after living in the country for two years.

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Croatia

Croatian citizenship by descent

There are three common ways to receive Croatian citizenship by descent:

  1. If both your parents were Croatian citizens when you were born.
  2. If you were born in Croatia and one of your parents was a Croatian citizen at the time of your birth.
  3. If you were born outside Croatia to one Croatian citizen parent and one parent without citizenship of any country (or unknown citizenship).
  4. You can also receive citizenship through a combination of descent and registration. For example, if you were born outside of Croatia and one of your parents was Croatian at the time of your birth and you were registered for Croatian citizenship before the age of 18, settle to live in Croatia or if you would not otherwise receive citizenship.

Descent applications from emigrants

Croatian emigrants and descendants (children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren etc.) may apply for citizenship with no language or culture tests required if your application is based on origin.

Exceptions include:

  • If a parent or grandparent left Croatia before 8 October 1991 and moved to another country in Yugoslavia, their descendants do not qualify for citizenship.
  • If a parent or grandparent left Croatia after 8 October 1991, their descendants do not qualify for citizenship.

Croatian permanent residency by marriage

If you are married to a Croatian citizen, you may apply for permanent residence after living in Croatia for five years.

Croatia dual citizenship

Croatia allows you to hold foreign citizenship in addition to Croatian nationality.

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Denmark

Born in Denmark

A child born in Denmark to unknown parents is considered Danish.

Born abroad to a Danish parent

Born between 1 January 1951 and 31 December 1978

Citizenship is automatically conferred at birth under the following conditions when the parents are married:

  1. If your father is Danish at the time of your birth, irrespective of place of birth.
  2. If you are born within the Kingdom of Denmark to a Danish mother and a stateless father, or if your father’s nationality would not be automatically awarded to you.

Citizenship is automatically conferred under the following conditions when the parents are not married:

  1. If your mother is Danish at the time of your birth.
  2. If your mother is a foreign national and your father is Danish, you will be given citizenship if your parents marry while you are a minor.

Born between 1 January 1979 and 31 January 1999

Citizenship is automatically conferred at birth if either of your parents is Danish.

Citizenship is automatically conferred under the following conditions when the parents are not married:,/p>

  1. If your mother is Danish at the time of your birth.
  2. If your mother is a foreign national and your father is Danish, you will be granted citizenship should your parents marry while you are a minor.

Born between 1 February 1999 and 30 June 2014

Citizenship is automatically conferred at birth if either of your parents is Danish.

Citizenship is automatically conferred under the following conditions when the parents are not married:

  1. If your mother is Danish at the time of your birth.
  2. If your mother is a foreign national and your father is Danish, you will be granted citizenship if you were born in Denmark or your parents get married while you are still a minor.

Born after 1 July 2014

Citizenship is automatically conferred at birth if either of your parents is Danish.

Danish citizenship by marriage

Danish citizenship can be granted through marriage to a Danish national by means of naturalisation. You and your spouse need to have legally resided together in Denmark for a minimum period of six years prior to the date of application and have been married for three years. You will need to show that you have a good understanding of the language.

Dual citizenship

As of 1 September 2015, dual nationality is permitted for all Danish citizens. The acquisition or possession of another nationality does not affect Danish nationality.

Loss of Danish citizenship

Danish citizenship can be lost automatically if it was acquired at birth, but you were not born in the Kingdom of Denmark and have not held residency in Denmark before you turn 22. The only exception to this is if the loss of Danish citizenship would leave you stateless or if you applied for and were granted permission to retain Danish citizenship prior to the age of 22.

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Estonia

Estonian citizenship by descent

If one of your parents was an Estonian citizen at the time of your birth, you become an Estonian citizen by descent. It doesn’t matter whether you were born inside or outside Estonia.

Estonian citizenship by marriage

You are eligible for Estonian citizenship if you married an Estonian citizen before 26 February 1992.

Estonian citizenship by naturalisation

You need to fulfil the following requirements to gain Estonian citizenship through naturalisation:

  • You are 15 years old or older
  • You have lived legally in Estonia for at least eight years, with the last five years spent with permanent residence
  • You can speak Estonian*
  • You pass an exam that shows familiarity with Estonia’s constitution
  • You can support yourself financially
  • You take an oath of loyalty to Estonia
* If you graduated from an Estonian high school or institute of higher education, you are assumed to have knowledge of the language and do not need to pass the test.

Estonian dual citizenship

Estonia does not recognise dual citizenship. If you hold another nationality, you must renounce it to gain Estonian citizenship

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Finland

Finnish citizenship by birth

You can gain Finnish citizenship by birth in Finland through several different situations:

Finnish citizenship by birth

You can gain Finnish citizenship by birth in Finland through several different situations:

  • If your mother is a Finnish citizen at the time of your birth*
  • If your parents are married and your father is a Finnish citizen
  • If your parents are unmarried, your father is a Finnish citizen and paternity is established
  • If your parents are married and your father was born a Finnish citizen but died before your birth
  • If your parents are unmarried and your father was born a Finnish citizens but died before your birth, provided paternity is established
* This was not always the law as nationality depends on date of birth and law of the time. If you were born before 2001 to a Finnish mother, her nationality does not automatically get passed down. It only gets passed down if your father does not have a nationality that can be given to you or if your mother was unmarried and your father is unknown.

Legitimisation

If you were born abroad to a Finnish father, you acquire citizenship on the date of the marriage contract, when your parents get married. If your parents are unmarried, you receive citizenship when paternity is established.

Adoption

Under 12

If a Finnish citizen adopts a foreign child who is under 12 years of age, the child will automatically receive Finnish citizen after entry into the population register.

Over 12

If a Finnish citizen adopts a foreign child who is over 12 years of age, the child may apply for citizenship by declaration.

Finnish citizenship by marriage

You can apply for a residence permit on the basis of family ties if your spouse or partner is a Finnish citizen. You must have lived together for at least two years or hold joint custody of a child.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

France

Born in France

A child born to foreign citizens in France can claim citizenship on their 16th birthday. Citizenship will be granted on their 18th birthday if France has been their main place of residence for five consecutive years since the age of 11.

A child born in France to foreign citizens may also acquire citizenship at the age of 18 if they have lived in France since the age of six, attended a French school, and have a sibling who obtained French citizenship.

The child of a French parent, born in France, acquires citizenship at birth.

Born abroad to a French parent

A child born to a French parent is automatically awarded citizenship at birth, on condition that their parentage is established while the child is a minor.

French citizenship by marriage

You can apply for French citizenship after four to five years of marriage to a French citizen on condition that you are still married at the date of application, your spouse still holds French citizenship, and you can demonstrate a good knowledge of the French language. The time requirement will be determined by your personal circumstances, such as if you resided together in France from the time you got married.

If you got married outside of France, your marriage must first be registered with the French Civil Registry.

Dual citizenship

As of January 1973, dual nationality is permitted for all French citizens. The acquisition or possession of another nationality does not affect French nationality.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Germany

German citizenship by descent

German citizenship through ancestry is generally passed down from your parents. It does not skip a generation - you cannot receive German citizenship from your grandparents if your parent is not German.

You can automatically become a German citizen in the following situations:

  • Birth to married parents
  • Birth to unmarried parents
  • Legitimation
  • Adoption
  • Birth in Germany
  • Marriage (with conditions and prior to 1970)

Birth to married parents

If you were born before 1975 to parents who were married, you could only generally become German if your father was a German citizen.

Born between 1 January 1914 and 31 December 1963

You are a German citizen only if your father was German at the time of your birth.

Although there was an opportunity to become a citizen by declaration until 1978, after that, you could not become German if only your mother was German at the time of your birth.

Born between 1 January 1964 and 31 December 1974

You are a German citizen if you father was German at the time of your birth. If only your mother was German, you became German only in the case of statelessness were it not for German citizenship.

Although there was an opportunity to become a citizen by declaration until 1978, after that, you could not become German if only your mother was German at the time of your birth and you would not become stateless.

Born between 1 January 1975 and 31 December 1999

You are a German citizen by birth if either your father or your mother was German at the time of your birth.

Born on or after 1 January 2000

You are a German citizen by birth if either your father or your mother was German at the time of your birth.

If both you and your German parent were born outside Germany before this date, then you only became a citizen if your birth was registered in Germany within one year of being born.

Birth to unmarried parents

If you were born before 1993 to parents who were unmarried, you could only generally become German if your mother was a German citizen.

Born before 1 July 1993

You are a German citizen only if your mother was German at the time of your birth.

If only your father was a citizen, you may only become German by legitimation.

Born between 1 July 1993 and 31 December 1999

You are a German citizen by birth if either your father or mother was German at the time of your birth. If only your father was German, legal paternity, not biological paternity, must be confirmed before you turn 23.

Born on or after 1 January 2000

You are a German citizen if either your father or mother was German at the time of your birth. If only your father was German, legal paternity, not biological paternity, must be confirmed before you turn 23.

If both you and your German parent were born outside Germany before this date, then you only became a citizen if your birth was registered in Germany within one year of being born.

Legitimation

Legitimation takes place if you were born when your parents were unmarried, they subsequently married, and you received German citizenship from your father. This process is also affected by your date of birth:

Born between 1 January 1914 and 30 June 1993

You are a German citizen by legitimation if there was legal paternity established and your parents got married after your birth, only if both their marriage and acknowledgement of your paternity took place before 30 June 1998.

Born on or after 1 January 2000

Legitimation has no effect on citizenship, as children born to unmarried parents automatically became German if either parent was German at the time of the child’s birth.

Adoption

If you were legally adopted in Germany, you may have become a German citizen depending on the dates and circumstances surrounding your birth:

Adopted before 1 January 1959

If you were adopted before 1 January 1959, you did not become a German citizen even if both your adoptive parents were German.

Adopted between 1 January 1959 and 31 December 1976

You don’t automatically become a German citizen if you were adopted between these dates. If there was a declaration made before 31 December 1979 and you have a certificate of declaration, you became a German citizen.

Adopted on or after 1 January 1977

If you were adopted legally in Germany by a German parent you became a German citizen.

German citizenship by marriage

You will need to have been married for at least two years and have lived in Germany for a minimum of three years before you qualify for German citizenship through marriage.

Germany dual citizenship

Dual citizenship for Germany is only allowed under certain circumstances, including:

  • If the other citizenship is from another EU country
  • If permission is granted from the German government
  • If renunciation of previous citizenship after German naturalisation is extremely difficult
  • If a child acquires German and another citizenship at birth

This area of German nationality law requires assessment on a case-by-case basis.

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Greece

Greek citizenship by birth

There are a number of different cases in which you may have a claim to Greek citizenship:

Born outside of Greece to Greek citizen parents

You do not automatically qualify for Greek citizenship if you were born outside of Greece and have a Greek parent or grandparent. You may have rights as a Greek national but are not officially a Greek citizen.

To receive Greek citizenship, your parents or grandparents must have been born in Greece and registered you in the Greek registry. They must also have applied for Greek citizenship on your behalf and received a certificate of confirmation. If your parents have recorded your birth and relationship to them, you can more easily apply for Greek citizenship later.

Citizenship through a grandparent

Greece may accept a citizenship application through a grandparent by naturalisation in Greece. This process can take up to two or three years.

Greek citizenship by marriage

Marrying a Greek citizen does not grant Greek citizenship. You instead must gain citizenship through naturalisation, by living in Greece for seven years, speaking Greek and passing a citizenship test.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Hungary

Hungarian citizenship by descent

If you have Hungarian parents, grandparents, or other ancestors, you may apply for Hungarian citizenship provided you can speak basic Hungarian.

Current Hungarian nationality law as of 1993, plus changes effected in January 2011, allows every person with a Hungarian ancestor (who was a citizen before 1920 or between 1941 and 1945) to claim citizenship. You can not only claim Hungarian citizenship through grandparents, but also through ancestors further up the line of descent – provided you can trace your ancestry.

You can also claim Hungarian citizenship if you lost previous citizenship when you left the country (typically in the pre-90s era).

Hungarian citizenship by marriage

If you’re married to a Hungarian citizen, you can qualify for citizenship if you meet one of the following requirements:

  • You’ve been married for at least 10 years.
  • You’ve been married for at least five years and have a child together.

Hungary dual citizenship

Hungary allows dual citizenship.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Italy

Italian citizenship by descent

If you were born outside Italy but have an Italian ancestor, you may have a claim to Italian citizenship.

Italian citizenship is granted through the paternal line with no limit on generations. If claiming citizenship from the maternal line, you must have been born after 1 January 1948.

Italian citizenship by marriage

You can claim Italian citizenship through marriage after living in Italy for two years with your spouse or living abroad with your spouse for three years. If you have children together, the time is reduced by half.

To claim Italian citizenship from your spouse through naturalisation, you must be able to speak Italian at a level B1 or higher (according to the EU Common Language Framework).

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Latvia

Acquiring Latvian citizenship by:

Birth: You may apply if a parent was Latvian at the time of your birth regardless of place of birth.

Exiles and descendants: A Latvian exile is a person who meets all the following requirements:

  1. Was a citizen of Latvia on 17 June 1940 (or is a descendant of a citizen of Latvia)
  2. led from Latvia, the USSR or German occupation regime, or was deported during the period from 17 June 1940 to 4 May 1990

Their descendants born before 1 October 2014 may concurrently acquire Latvian.

Dual citizenship is allowed according to Latvian citizenship law.

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Lithuania

Lithuanian citizenship by descent

The following situation will allow you to claim Lithuanian citizenship by descent:

  • If at least one of your parents, grandparents or great grandparents were citizens when the country was the Republic of Lithuania (between 1918 and 1940).
  • Birth to unmarried parents
  • If your relative left Lithuania before Lithuanian independence was restored (March 11, 1990).
  • If your relative left Lithuania to a country that was not part of the former Soviet Union.*
  • *If your relative went to a Soviet Union country, you may be eligible for single or dual Lithuanian citizenship depending on their circumstances.

Citizenship law amendments, as of 1 July 2016, allow you to be eligible for dual Lithuanian citizenship from descendants that left before 1940. Previously, you were only eligible for single Lithuanian citizenship, which meant renouncing any current citizenship.

Lithuanian citizenship by marriage

You may be granted Lithuanian citizenship through marriage after seven years of permanent residence with your Lithuanian spouse.

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Luxembourg

Born in Luxembourg

A child born in Luxembourg can claim citizenship if one of the following criteria is met:

  • Their parent was born in Luxembourg
  • Their parents are stateless at the time of their birth
  • Their parents are unknown
  • They would be otherwise stateless if not granted Luxembourg citizenship

A child born in Luxembourg is awarded citizenship automatically at the age of 18 if at least one parent had resided in Luxembourg for the 12 months prior to the date of the child’s birth, and the child lived continuously in Luxembourg for the five years preceding their 18th birthday.

Born abroad to a Luxembourgish parent

A child born to a citizen of Luxembourg is awarded citizenship automatically, irrespective of place of birth.

Luxembourg citizenship by descent

Luxembourg law does make special provision for the first- and second-degree descendants of current/former Luxembourg nationals, who were not awarded citizenship automatically by operation of law. For this reason, an application for citizenship can be made through a Luxembourgish grandparent, even if your parent does not hold/has never held citizenship.

Luxembourg citizenship by marriage

Citizenship can be acquired through marriage to a Luxembourg national upon submission and approval of a specialised option application. The option application requires successful completion of an integration and language examination. If you and your spouse reside outside of Luxembourg, an application can only be lodged after three years of marriage.

Dual citizenship

As of 1 January 2009, dual nationality is permitted for all Luxembourgish citizens. The acquisition or possession of another nationality does not affect Luxembourgish nationality.

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Malta

Descent: Persons born outside Malta between 21 September 1964 and 31 July 1989 only acquired Maltese citizenship by descent if the father was:

  • A Maltese citizen born in Malta; or
  • A Maltese citizen by registration or naturalisation

Women could not pass on their Maltese citizenship unless they were unmarried.

From 1 August 1989, children born outside Malta to Maltese-born or naturalised mothers acquired Maltese citizenship by descent automatically.

Changes to the Maltese Citizenship Act in 2007

Amendments to the Maltese Citizenship Act, which came into force on 1 August 2007, make it possible for all persons of Maltese descent to obtain Maltese citizenship by registration.

From 10 February 2000, a person born outside Malta between 21 September 1964 and 31 July 1989 to a Maltese-born or naturalised mother may apply for Maltese citizenship by registration.

Residence in Malta is not a requirement.

Marriage

The foreign spouse of a Maltese citizen may acquire Maltese citizenship by marriage after five years of marriage and living together. Residence in Malta is not required.

  • Widows and widowers of a Maltese citizen (where the spouse died within the first five years of marriage) may apply for Maltese citizenship by marriage five years after the date of the marriage to their deceased spouse.
  • Persons separated from a Maltese spouse may still apply for Maltese citizenship by marriage, provided they lived together for five years after the celebration of the marriage.
  • Prior to 10 February 2000, the five-year period of marriage did not apply, while before 1 August 1989 only the foreign wife of a Maltese man was eligible for citizenship by marriage

Loss of Maltese citizenship

1964 to 1989

At independence in 1964, Malta adopted strict rules to prevent dual citizenship in adulthood.

  • An adult citizen of Malta acquiring a foreign citizenship automatically lost Maltese citizenship
  • A Maltese citizen who had acquired another citizenship at birth or during childhood was obliged to renounce that other citizenship before age 19. Otherwise, Maltese citizenship was lost.

Reforms of 1989

From 1 August 1989 Maltese law was amended to allow certain emigrants from Malta to retain Maltese citizenship. It was necessary to have been born in Malta and meet certain residential criteria in order to benefit from this provision.

Those covered by this limited exception were deemed never to have lost Maltese citizenship. In other words, the change in the law was retrospective to 21 September 1964.

The reform did not assist Maltese citizens by descent who had been born in other countries (such as Australia or Canada), who were still obliged to renounce their other citizenship by age 19 or face automatic loss of Maltese citizenship.

For example, between 1964 and 2000 (when the law changed), approximately two thousand Australian-born young persons (aged 18) renounced their Australian citizenship in order to retain Maltese citizenship. They were generally unable to recover their Australian citizenship later on, or migrate back to Australia.

Reforms of 2000

From 10 February 2000, it was no longer possible to involuntarily lose Maltese citizenship based on possession or acquisition of a foreign citizenship.

A former Maltese citizen by birth or descent who had resided outside Malta for six years was automatically conferred with Maltese citizenship retrospective to the date on which they lost it. In other words, they are deemed never to have lost Maltese citizenship.

Other former Maltese citizens who do not meet the requirements for automatic re-acquisition of Maltese citizenship are entitled to obtain Maltese citizenship by registration. This includes former Maltese citizens who acquired that status by naturalisation or registration, and those who resided outside Malta for less than six years.

Dual citizenship

With effect from 10 February 2000, there are no restrictions under Maltese law on its citizens holding other citizenships. Dual citizens are entitled to hold a Maltese passport.

After Brexit, Maltese citizens will still have access to the UK Ancestry visa.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Netherlands

Dutch citizenship by birth

Born before 1 January 1985

If your father was a Dutch citizen at the time of your birth, you may apply for Dutch citizenship by descent even if you were born outside the Netherlands.

If only your mother was a Dutch citizen at the time of your birth, you will need to make an application and motivate why you should receive citizenship based on your family ties or residence.

Born on or after 1 January 1985

You are automatically considered a Dutch citizen even if you were born outside the Netherlands, provided any one of your parents was a Dutch citizen at the time of your birth.

Dutch citizenship by marriage

You may apply for Dutch citizenship if you have been living with your Dutch spouse for three consecutive years either in the Netherlands or outside the Netherlands.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Poland

Polish citizenship by descent

You can claim Polish citizenship by descent if one of your parents is Polish. You do not have to be born in Poland to qualify and receive citizenship automatically at birth.

You may also claim Polish citizenship by descent from grandparents or great-grandparents. Here are the requirements:

  • An ancestor born in Poland (or a Polish territory)
  • They must have lived in Poland after 1920 or left Poland before 1920 but their address can still be found in a Polish, Prussian, Russian or Austro-Hungarian register
  • They were a Polish citizen on the day of your birth

Polish citizenship through adoption

You received Polish citizenship if you were adopted before age 16 by a Polish citizen.

Polish citizenship by marriage

You can claim citizenship through marriage to a Polish citizen if you have been married for three years and lived in Poland for two consecutive years while holding permanent residency. You can receive permanent residency after gaining a temporary residence permit through marriage to a Polish citizen.

As part of the requirements for citizenship, you must also have sufficient knowledge of the Polish language.

Polish dual citizenship

Poland does not recognise dual citizenships, but does not explicitly forbid holding another citizenship.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Portugal

Portuguese citizenship by descent

Born outside Portugal to Portuguese parent

You may be eligible for Portuguese citizenship if one of your grandparents is Portuguese. You must have your birth registered at the Portuguese civil registry or declare that you want to be Portuguese.

Born in a Portuguese territory

If you were born in a Portuguese territory, such as Portuguese India, East Timor and Macau, you can qualify for Portuguese citizenship if at least one of your parents was born in and lived in Portugal at the time of your birth.

Born outside Portugal with a Portuguese grandparent

From 29 July 2015, you are granted Portuguese citizenship if one of your grandparents is Portuguese.

Portuguese citizenship by marriage

You can gain Portuguese citizenship through marriage after three years of marriage to a Portuguese citizen or three years of legally recognised cohabitation. There’s no residency requirement, although you need to prove a connection to the Portuguese community.

If you later divorce, your citizenship is not revoked.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Romania

Acquiring Romanian citizenship by:

  • Birth: All children born to Romanian citizens acquire citizenship at birth. The child may be born in Romanian territory or abroad and only one parent needs to be a Romanian citizen.
  • Adoption: Citizenship is granted to any child who is legally adopted by Romanian citizens.
  • Repatriation: Any person who has lost Romanian citizenship can regain citizenship.

Dual citizenship is allowed according to Romanian citizenship Law.

Our expert consultants can help you determine if you have a claim to EU citizenship

Slovakia

All individuals who were considered citizens of the Slovak Republic up until 31 December 1992 are considered citizens of Slovakia.

Born in Slovakia

A child born in Slovakia to foreign parents will only acquire Slovakian citizenship in the event that their parents are stateless, or that their nationality would not be automatically conferred upon the child at birth.

A child born in Slovakia to unknown parents is automatically awarded Slovakian citizenship.

Born abroad to a Slovakian parent

A child born to a Slovakian parent is automatically awarded citizenship, irrespective of place of birth.

Slovakian citizenship by marriage

Slovakian citizenship can be granted through marriage to a Slovakian national if the couple has legally resided together in Slovakia for a minimum period of five years prior to the date of application.

Dual citizenship

Dual citizenship is only permitted under Slovakian law in the event that the foreign nationality was acquired automatically through birth or marriage. Slovakian nationals acquiring foreign citizenship will automatically lose their Slovakian nationality.

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Slovenia

Born in Slovenia

A child born to foreign parents in Slovenia will be automatically awarded citizenship if they would otherwise be stateless.

A child born in Slovenia to a Slovenian parent acquires citizenship automatically.

Born abroad to a Slovenian parent

A child born abroad to a Slovenian parent acquires citizenship on condition that they are registered with the Republic of Slovenia prior to their 18th birthday.

A child born abroad to a Slovenian parent acquires citizenship on condition that they are registered with the Republic of Slovenia prior to their 18th birthday.

In both cases, the parent’s information must be registered prior to submission of the child’s application.

Slovenian citizenship by descent

Slovenian law notes that individuals of Slovenian descent, up until the second generation, who are unable to register for citizenship, may submit a discretionary application under a specialised provision.

Such an application requires the applicant to demonstrate that they have active ties to the Republic of Slovenia and can provide evidence of a minimum of five years’ worth of activity in Slovenian organisations.

Slovenian citizenship by marriage

Slovenian citizenship can be granted through marriage to a Slovenian national by means of naturalisation, in the event that the couple has legally resided together in Slovakia for a minimum period of one year prior to the date of application and have been married for three years. You must demonstrate a good understanding of the language, be sufficiently established within the country, and will need to renounce any existing nationality upon naturalising.

Dual citizenship

Slovenian law permits dual citizenship unless the Slovenian citizenship was acquired through naturalisation.

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Spain

Individuals who are considered to be citizens of Spain are ones who meet one of the following conditions:

  • Are born of a Spanish parent
  • Are born in Spain of foreign parents if at least one of the parents was also born in Spain*
  • Are born in Spain of foreign parents if neither of them has a nationality, or if the legislation of either parent's home country does not grant the child any nationality
  • Are born in Spain of an undetermined filiation**

*Except for children of foreign diplomatic or consular officers accredited in Spain.
**Individuals whose first known territory of residence is Spain are considered born in Spain.

Spanish citizenship by adoption

Foreign minors under the age of 18 can acquire Spanish nationality by origin after being adopted by a Spanish national. If the adoptee is 18 years or older, they can apply for Spanish nationality by origin within two years after the adoption took place.

Spanish citizenship by descent

If one of your parents was originally Spanish and was born in Spain but has now lost their Spanish nationality, you can apply for citizenship. You can also apply if you were born with another nationality before 1982 to a Spanish mother.

Spanish citizenship by marriage

If you are married to a Spaniard, you can fast-track your application and become a Spanish citizen after living in Spain for one year. The application and conditions of citizenship follow the standard procedure. The difference is that you don't need to wait 10 years before you apply. You will not be able to hold dual citizenship and must surrender your existing citizenship. You can also claim Spanish citizenship as the surviving spouse of a Spaniard. However, you cannot have been separated at the time of their death.

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Sweden

Swedish citizenship by birth

A child born after 1 April 2015 acquires Swedish citizenship automatically if:

  • One of the parents is a Swedish citizen at the time of the child's birth
  • A deceased parent of the child was a Swedish citizen upon their death

A child born before 1 April 2015 acquired Swedish citizenship at birth if they met one of the following conditions:

  • The child's father was a Swedish citizen and was married to the child's mother
  • The child was born out of wedlock in Sweden and their father was a Swedish citizen
  • The child was born on or after 1 July 1979 and their mother was a Swedish citizen

For example, a child born to a Swedish father and a non-Swedish mother will not be Swedish if either: the child's parents are not married to each other or if they were not married when the child was conceived and the child was born outside of Sweden, unless the father registered the birth.

Swedish citizenship by adoption

A child who is aged under 12 and has been adopted by a Swedish citizen automatically receives Swedish citizenship if:

  • The child has been adopted as the result of a decision taken in Sweden or in another Nordic Council country
  • The child has been adopted as the result of a decision taken abroad and approved in Sweden by the Swedish Intercountry Adoptions Authority

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